Scientific Studies on Cordyceps militaris Research on Cordyceps polysaccharide attracted increasing attention because of its multi-pharmacological functions such as immunomodulation, anti-tumor, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, renal and liver protective effects, etc. The constituents of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris, especially the anti-cancer agent cordycepin (3′-deoxyadenosine), are expected to play evolutionary roles in the pharmacognosy sector in future. Our present findings suggest that C. militaris may be a potential candidate for the neuroprotection of hippocampus and the recovery of various vascular dementia or neuroinflammatory disorders. Cordyceps is a mushroom traditionally used to treat sexual dysfunction and fertility in Chinese medicine, as well as a general sexual tonic and libido/performance enhancer. This mushroom belongs to phylum Ascomycoa, the sub-phylum Ascomycotina and the class Clavicipataceae; which as a whole is seen as medicinal.