Lion's Mane Mushroom (Hericium erinaceus)
Lion's mane mushrooms are white, globe-shaped fungi that have long, shaggy spines. People can eat them or take them in the form of supplements. Research suggests that they may offer a range of health benefits, including reduced inflammation and improved cognitive and heart health.
Things to know:
Lion's Mane mushrooms are considered nootropics, nutraceuticals and a bioactive mushrooms.
Nootropics are drugs, supplements, and other substances that may improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
Nutraceuticals are food containing health-giving additives and having medicinal benefits.
Bioactive Mushrooms or fungi have certain active components in them that make them bridge the grey area in between food and supplement; they can be consumed as food or taken as a loose powder in capsules.
Lion's mane mushrooms may enhance the immune system, partly by reducing inflammation and preventing oxidation.
Research on mice suggests that lion's mane mushrooms may boost the activity of the intestinal immune system.
The results of another study on mice indicate that a protein in lion's mane mushrooms encourages the growth of beneficial gut bacteria that strengthen immunity.
Inflammation & Oxidation
Antioxidants may fight both inflammation and oxidation in the body.
Inflammation contributes to many medical conditions, including diabetes, heart disease, and autoimmune diseases.
A 2012 study evaluating the medicinal potential of 14 types of mushroom found that lion's mane had the fourth-highest antioxidant activity, which researchers described as "moderate to high."
Anxiety & Depression
Extracts from lion's mane mushrooms may be beneficial in the treatment of anxiety and depression.
In a 2015 study, mice that consumed lion's mane mushroom extract displayed fewer depressive behaviors and had blood markers that indicated lower depression. The researchers suggest that this is due to the extract's anti-inflammatory effects.
The findings of a 2018 animal study support this, with the authors concluding that these mushroom extracts may contain agents that are useful for treating depressive disorders.
Controlling blood sugar levels is key to managing diabetes. In one study, blood sugar levels in rats with diabetes were lower after they received lion's mane mushroom extract for 4 weeks.
One of the complications of diabetes is nerve damage resulting from prolonged periods of high blood sugar.
A 2015 study on rats, in which they ingested lion's mane extract for 6 weeks, showed positive results, including lower blood sugar levels, reduced feelings of nerve pain, and improved antioxidant activity.
It is possible that lion's mane mushrooms might boost cognitive function, but the existing research is mainly on animals.
In one study, lion's mane dietary supplements appeared to give mice better object recognition and recognition memory.
Other researchers have concluded that the mushrooms may have the potential to treat or prevent diseases that cause a decline in cognitive health, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.
However, there is currently a lack of research on the effects of lion's mane mushrooms in humans with Alzheimer's disease.
An older Japanese study on adults aged between 50 and 80 years with mild cognitive impairment found that daily consumption of mushroom extract for 16 weeks led to higher scores on cognitive function scales compared with a placebo group. These scores decreased again once the participants stopped taking the extract.
The antioxidant properties of lion's mane mushrooms may play a role in cancer prevention or treatment.
The results of an in vitro study indicate that lion's mane extracts have therapeutic potential against human leukemia.
A study using animal models found that these mushroom extracts may also fight liver, colon, and gastric cancer cells.
These findings are promising, but it is not currently possible to confirm that the same effects will apply in people.
Nervous System Recovery
Damage to the nervous system can have significant effects on health.
Some research suggests that extracts of lion's mane mushrooms may encourage nerve cells to grow and repair more quickly.
One study showed that rats with nerve damage receiving a daily extract of lion's mane mushrooms had quicker nerve regeneration than control animals.
Lion's mane may help digestive health by fighting inflammation, which could be beneficial for people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The mushroom may also boost immune function and encourage the growth of good bacteria in the gut.
In vitro studies report that lion's mane mushrooms can result in antibacterial activity that may improve digestion. Research in mice supports these findings by showing that extracts of lion's mane may protect against stomach ulcers.
Risks & Side Effects
Most studies on lion's mane mushrooms have used animals, but it appears to be safe to eat the mushrooms in moderate quantities, as people do in many countries in Asia.
The safety and effectiveness of lion's mane supplements are less apparent because dietary supplements do not have the same regulations as food and drug products.
However, in the animal studies, even high doses did not produce adverse effects in the rodents.
These statements have not been evaluated by FDA. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.